Obverse: Upper and below inscription in Chinese language (乾隆) Qianlong [reign], left and right (通寶) Tongbao [Coins cash]
Reverse: Left inscription in Chinese language has the Manchu character Boo, and left side inscription in Manchu character yuwan (mint name).
Metal: Brass 22 mm. Coin name: Tongbao. Era date and coins period: 12 Febuary 1736 – 8 February 1796. Ruler: Qianlong Emperor (Chien-lung-Emperor) Qian (rich), long (compose) period of the powerful dynasty. Reign name: Chinese Manchu. Era name: Abkai Wehiyehe.
Manchu Emperors (1644 – 1838)
Under the Manchu Emperors the Chinese empire was expanded to the greatest extent possible. The most prominent Manchu Emperors were Kang Hsi (1661 – 1772) and Qianlong Emperor “Chien-lung-Emperor” given name Hongli was born September 25, 1711 reign years (1735 – 1796). He was known generally by which name and reign title of Qianlong Emperor. They encouraged art, architectures, literature and learning. Many outlying regions of
It was during the Manchu rule that the westerners came to
When Chien lung the ruler of Manchu royal family in China, at that time Mughal empire was moving towards the down fall in India, at that time during the rule of Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah complete name Nasir al-Din Muhammad Shah family name Roshan Akhtar reign (1719 - 1748), Nader Shah Afshar reign (1736 - 1747) attacked and looted in cruel way, at last Mughal emperor surrendered before Nader Shah Afshar and made agreement him.
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Sunday, 14 April 2013
Sunday, 24 February 2013
Reverse: Inscription hindi words written (sri maha) (mada ka) (raluka).
Nasir al din Mohammad Qarlugh was introduce a new tanka coins series
in Sindh. His was ruled period on
He did not take a single pie from the state treasury for his own use and earned his living by writing copies of the Holy Quran and selling them. His wife her self did the whole household work. During his reign the rajput rose in revolt and the Mongols threatened the country. Nasir – ud – Din had entrusted all the work of the government to his minister Balban, who was also his father – in – law. Balban was a very wise and capable man. He faithfully served the sultan for twenty years. In February 18, 1266 AD., When Nasir–ud–Din died, he succeeded him to the throne.
Thursday, 13 December 2012
Wednesday, 28 November 2012
One of the most popular 1 Rupees memorial fund was issued in 1960. Memorial Fund was printed after the death of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah. Pakistan memorial fund design issued of picture Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah.Issued denomination of One Rupees, actual mausoleum of jinnah sahib was complete in some years. Inscription in three lines with Quaid-e-Azam portrait.
Obverse: Value written in four sides Inscription given in Urdu (one rupee) and Bengali (one taka) languages left side picture of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah wearing head cap white shirt and coat. Right side serial number of receipt memorial fund, P 155185 below light orange color with the moon and a star with bold text and small text in Urdu [aik rupiyah] “Quaid-e-Azam memorial Fund” bottom “Quaid-e-Azam memorial fund kay liye Aik Rupiyah ki raqam shukriyeh ke saath wasool hoi” (Received with thanks one rupee for Quaid-e-Azam memorial fund) and print signature chairman of the central committee.
Thursday, 22 November 2012
When the Aryans entered India, most of their time was employed in fighting with the aborigines. But when they advanced in to the Gangetic valley and established their kingdoms there, they inclined towards religion. But the vedic religion had now degenerated. (i) It now becomes a set of complicated and meaningless rituals. (ii) Animal sacrifices also increased and Yajinas become very costly. (iii) Caste system became very rigid and (iv) the Brahmanas rose in importance. Many people revolted against this religion and in the sixth century B.C. a number of new sects sprang up. Only two of these sects have survived. These were founded by two Kshatriya princes. Buddhism by Sidhartha and Jainism by Vardhmana Mahavira.
Gautama Buddha (The Reformer)
(623 B.C. – 543 B.C.)
His Childhood: Gautama was a Kashatriya prince and was the son of Shuddodana, the raja of Kapilavastu in Nepal. He was born in (623 B.C. or according to some authorities in 567 B.C. or even 563 B.C.) IN Lumbini village and was named Siddhartha. Later on he came to be known as the Buddha. As he belong to the Sakya clan, he is also called Muni’.
Marriage: Gautama Buddha was brought up in the lap of luxury. Like other Kshatriya princes received high education, he was always absorbed in thought. The sight of suffering made him sad and restless. His father wanted to change this state of his mind. Accordingly, at the age of 18 he was married to Yashodhara, a beautiful princess. But this did not change him in any way.
Renunciation: On difference occasions Gautama happened to see the sights of old age, disease and death and he realized that human life is full of misery. He now wanted to find a way by which a man could escape this misery. Ten years after his marriage he was blessed with a son, who was named Rahula. Now he said. “Here is another bond.” He made up his mind to leave his home. So at the age of 28 he left home one night and retired to the forests. This event is known as the Great Renunciation.
Becoming the Buddha: At first Gautama went to the Brahmanas learn what they could teach him. But this did not satisfy him. Then for six years he practiced severe penances in the jungles of Uruvela near Gaya so that he was reduced to a skeleton. This also proved of no avail. At last he sat down in meditation under a bo-tree near Gaya. Here he discovered a new light, and he thought that he had now found a way to free mankind from the miseries of human life. It was that a man should be pure in word, deed and thought. From this time he came to be called the Buddha or the enlightened one. At this time he was 35 years old.
Preaching His Religion: Now Buddha began to preach his religion, and gave his first sermon in the Deer Park at Sarnath near Benares. Here five sadhus became his disciples. He followers began to increase and Buddha founded a powerful Sangha or order of his Bhikshus. These people spread his religion far and wide. Buddha spent the last 46 years of his life in preaching his religion in Magadha and the surrounding districts. His father and other member of his family embraced his religion.Death: at last at the age of 83 i.e. in 543 B.C. (or according to some authorities 487 or even 483 B.C.) Buddha died at Kushinagar (Gorakhpur district).
Teaching of Buddha.
1. Buddha’s teachings were very simple. The dealt with practical life. The basic principles of his teaching were four.
(a) This life is full of misery.
(b) The cause of misery is desire.
(c) Misery can be averted by killing desire.
(d) To kill desire a man should follow the Eight fold path consisting of:-
(i) Right Understanding (ii) Right Resolve (iii) Right Speech (iv) Right Conduct (v) Right Living (vi) Right Effort (vii) Right Meditation (viii) Right Enjoyment.
Middle Path: It is also called the Middle path because Buddha taught that a man should avoid a life of luxury on the one hand and a life of sever penance on the other. He preached the Middle Path.
2. Nirvana: According to Buddha the highest goal of human life is to attain nirvana.
This nirvana can be attained by leading a virtuous life and by the Eight-fold path.
3. Ahinsa: Buddha laid emphasis on ahinsa that is non-injury to living beings.
4. Karma: Buddha believed in doctrines of Karma and the Trans-migration of Soul.
5. Silent About the Existence of God: He was silent about the existence of God and did not believe in the Vedas and sacrifices.6. He did not believe in the caste system.
Buddhism – Its Rise and Decline.
Cause of spread: Buddhism spread very rapidly in India and even far off countries. The chief causes of its rapid spread were the following:-
Personality of Buddha: Buddha the founder of Buddhism led a very virtuous and pious life. More over he came of a royal family and had a magnetic personality so that people were drawn towards him.
Simple Teachings: In contrast with the abstruse philosophy of Hinduism the teachings of Buddha were very simple and the common people could understand them very easily.
Popular Language: Buddhism was preached in Pali, the language of the common people and not in Sanskrit which could be understood by educated people only.
Absence of Caste: there was no caste among the Buddhists. All people were equal. For this reason people of low castes who were generally looked down up in the Hindu society embraced this religion in large numbers.Hatred of Rituals: Common people were disgusted with the cruel and bloody sacrifices and costly yajnas of the Hindus. For this reason Buddhism which regarded noble deeds alone as a means of salvation and laid emphasis on ahinsa was more popular.
Activities of Bhikshus: The sangha or order founded by Buddha proved a powerful means of propagating Buddhism. Bhikshus preached the religion not only all over the country in far off lands too.
Royal Support: The chief reason for the spread of Buddhism was that Maharaja Asoka the great Mauryan Emperor made it the state religion and he used all his energies in spreading it.Absence of Rivals: Another reason for the spread of Buddhism was that it had not to compete with any other faith. Hinduism was not, for a missionary religion. Islam and Christianity, the two leading missionary religions, had not yet come into being.
Vardhamana Mahavira (593 B.C – 527 B.C).
The Beginning of Jainism.
Vardhamana Mahavira was the founder of Jainism and came of a royal family of Bihar. He was born about 599 B.C. and was for some time a contemporary of Buddha. His early life was spint like that of Gautama. At the age of thirty he left his home after the death of his parents and joined the sect of Sadhus founded by Parshvanath the twenty third Tirithankar. But he got no satisfaction. He left this sect and passed the next twelve years in severe penances. At last true light dawned upon him and be came to be called Mahavira or the Great Hero and Jin the conqueror. He was then 42 years old. Now he recognized the sect of Parshvanath and named it Jainism. During the last thirty years of his life Mahavira went about preaching in Magadha and the surrounding territories. He was connected with many royal families and this helped him a great deal in spreading his religion. Still his religion was never as popular as Buddhism and it did not spread outside India.Mahavira died at the age of 72 Pawa (District Patna) in 527 B.C. At the time of his death
he had nearly 14000 followers.
Teaching of Jainism
Nirvana: The teaching of Jainism, are very similar to those of Buddhism. The Jains believe that the Object of human life is to attain nirvana which can be achieved by following these three principles:
(a) Right Faith.
(b) Right Knowledge.
(c) Right Conduct.
They are called the ‘three jewels’.
Ahinsa: The most important doctrine of Jainism is that of Ahinsa i.e. non injury to living beings. The Jains have carried this principle to such extreme to that they regard it a sin to injure even small insects. This is the reason why some jains walk about bare foot and tie a piece of cloth round their mouths so that they should not inhale the small insects in the air. They even strain water before drinking.
Denial of Greator: The Jainis deny the existence of a creator or ruler of the universe but they believe that everything has a soul.
Yajnas: Like the Buddhist the Jainis do not believe in the yajnas or sacrifices, nor do they acknowledge the authority of the Vedas.
Karma: Like the Hindus and Buddhists the Jainis believe in Karma and Transmigrations of soul.
Tirithankaras: The Jainis worship their 24 tirithankaras.
Starvation: The Jainis regard penances and even death by starvation as a virtue.
About two hundred years after the death of Mahavira Jainism was split up into the following two sects:
Shwetambara: These people wear white clothes and clothe their idols in white.
Digambara: These people worship nacked idols and their sadhus remain nacked.
Jainism and Buddhism
Points of Resemblance
Both against Brahmanas: Both Jainism and Buddhism rose as a revolt against the tyranny of the Brahmanas, therefore it was but natural that they should agree on certain points. Moreover the founders of both the sects lived at the same time and practically preached in the same territory. On account of these reasons certain scholars regarded Jainism as a branch of Buddhism. But it is now definitely established that, in spite of certain resemblances between their doctrines and the careers of their founders, the two sects were altogether different both in their origin and in their later development. Let us now examine the main points of resemblance between the two:
Religious Reformation: Both Mahavira and Gautama Buddha were religious reformers. They had no intention to be founders of new faiths, they merely wanted to reform Hinduism of its gross abuses. They directed their revolt against the supremacy of the Brahmanas and the meaningless and troublersome system of scarifies and ceremonies, which had become the most important part of Hinduism.
Karma: Both Buddhism and Jainism believed in the theories of Karma and transmigration of soul. But though they derived their fundamental doctrines from the Vedas, they denied their authority as the revealed word of God and condemned the animal sacrifices which formed a part of the Brahmanical faith.
Ahinsa: Both the sects laid special emphasis on the doctrine of Ahinsa or non-injury to living beings and advocated a highly moral life.
Existence of God Ignored: Both Jainism and Buddhism ignored the existence of God and held an individual responsible for his destiny.
Nirvana: The aim of both the sects was to attain Nirvana or salvation for the individual. They differed in their methods but agreed in their purpose.
Monastic Faith: Jainism and Buddhism, unlike Hinduism, were congregational and monastic faiths. Both of these sects mainly depended up well organized religious brotherhoods of monks and nuns for preservation and propagation of their doctrines.
Preaching in Common Language: Both the sects were established by highly connected Kshatriyas and secured their early recruits from the same territory, i.e., Magadha and Vaisali. The religious literature of both the sects was comaared in the common vernaculars of the people and both Mahavira and Buddha preached their doctrines in the common language of the people instead of Sanskrit.However, in spite of these outward resemblances one should not ignore the fundamental differences existing between the two sects.
Points of Difference.
1. It is possible for us to trace separately the history, origin, growth and later development of Jainism.
2. In order to attain Nirvana or salvation Mahavira greatly emphasized the practices of penance and self-mortification. According to Jainism the best form of death is to starve oneself.
3. Jainism carried the doctrine of ahinsa to an extreme. Some of the Jain practices appear impossible for a layman.
4. The Jains believe that even inanimate objects possess individual souls which are a part of a Universal soul.
5. Jainism condemns caste system in theory, but observes it in practice. Jain Brahmans wear the sacred thread and observe other caste rules.
6. Although the Jains have the separate religions order of monks and nuns, they assign quite an important position to the laity.
7. The Jains have certain distinct religious practices, which the Buddhists abhor. For example the Jains consider suicide by starvation as something noble and one of their sects the Digambaras generally go about naked.8. The Jains have their own way of worshipping their saints, but they do not build stupas over their relics.
1. Gautama Buddha and Vardhamana Mahavira were two distinct personalities. The religious literature of both the sects is distinctly separate and both have their separate philosophy and mythology.
2. Gautama not only himself failed to find enlightenment through severe austerities, but recommended to his disciples the Middle Path lying between luxury and asceticism.
3. Buddha, while including the doctrine of ahinsa in his principles, did not carry it to the same extreme to which it was extended by Magavira.
4. Buddhism clearly lays sown that soul as a permanent entity does not exist. It ignores metaphysical doctrines like Universal Soul altogether.
5. Buddhism preaches and practice equality mankind. It does not tolerate Brahmana or caste rules within fold.
6. Buddhism attaches great importance to the Sangha and the lay disciples do not enjoy the position or the prestige given to Bhikshus or Bhikshuis.
7. The Buddhist scriptures strongly condemn any kind of severe penance and regard suicide by starvation as a great sin. The Buddhists regard the Jain practice of nudity as extremely offensive.8. The stupa is an institution peculiar to Buddhism. It was generally built over the remains of the Buddhist saints.
The later development of the two sects was distinctly separate. Within five hundred years of the death of Gautama, Buddhism grew from a local sect into a world religion, while Jainism remained one of the minor sects of Hinduism. Again, Buddhism after its glorious abroad, completely disappeared from the land of its birth, but Jainism ever confined within the four walls of Indo-Pak, still exercises a considerable influence on the social and religions life of the country.
Wednesday, 14 November 2012
Tuesday, 6 November 2012
Obverse: text written on coin badshah (emperor) Ghazi sahib Quran Sani. Reverse: Full text Dar-ul-Khilafat Shahjahanabad zarab reign 19 jalus maiman manus.
Mughal Emperor Nasir al-Din Muhammad Shah was born in 7th August 1702 at Fatehpursikri. Actual name in history Roshan Akhtar. Roshan Akhtar was the grand son of Bahadur Shah-I. Muhammad Shah died 6th April 1748 in Dehli.
Mughal Emperor Nasir al-Din Muhammad Shah.Reign.Year on coin 19. Inscription mint capital of Shahjahanabad. Silver metal Rupee. This coin used period of A.H 1131-1161 Year 1719-1748. Diameter 21 mm.